mushroom scientific name

December 6, 2020 in Uncategorized

C15: from Old French mousseron, from Late Latin mussiriō, of obscure origin mushroom in American English (ˈmʌʃˌrum ; ˈmʌʃˌrʊm) Once such stages are formed, the mushroom can rapidly pull in water from its mycelium and expand, mainly by inflating preformed cells that took several days to form in the primordia. Their spores, called basidiospores, are produced on the gills and fall in a fine rain of powder from under the caps as a result. As long as nourishment is available and temperature and moisture are suitable, a mycelium will produce a new crop of sporophores each year during its fruiting season. These distinctions between attached gills are sometimes difficult to interpret, since gill attachment may change as the mushroom matures, or with different environmental conditions. Others have decurrent gills that extend down the stalk, as in the genera Omphalotus and Pleurotus. There are a great number of variations between the extremes of free and decurrent, collectively called attached gills. using fungi to lower bacterial levels in contaminated water). The fertile portion of the Gasteromycetes, called a gleba, may become powdery as in the puffballs or slimy as in the stinkhorns. There are different scientific names for each different mushroom. In the study, one third of the subjects reported ingestion of psychedelic mushrooms was the single most spiritually significant event of their lives. Fuzzy Foot : Can you make up a story or play using some of these common mushroom names? Chemical tests are also used for some genera.[7]. [12], The most important microscopic feature for identification of mushrooms is the spores. The way the gills attach to the top of the stalk is an important feature of mushroom morphology. In addition, due to the propensity of mushrooms to absorb heavy metals, including those that are radioactive, as late as 2008, European mushrooms may have included toxicity from the 1986 Chernobyl disaster and continued to be studied. The primordium enlarges into a roundish structure of interwoven hyphae roughly resembling an egg, called a "button". A practitioner of traditional mushroom use is the shaman or curandera (priest-healer). The mycelium starts from a spore falling in a favourable spot and producing strands (hyphae) that grow out in all directions, eventually forming a circular mat of underground hyphal threads. The sporophore of an agaric consists of a cap (pileus) and a stalk (stipe). Updates? Image of forest, natural, lichen - 119338747 The vitamin D content of a mushroom depends on postharvest handling, in particular the unintended exposure to sunlight. Photo about Lingzhi mushroom scientific name: Ganoderma lucidum that occur naturally in the wild. [8], Other mushrooms are not gilled, so the term "mushroom" is loosely used, and giving a full account of their classifications is difficult. This phenomenon is the source of several common expressions in the English language including "to mushroom" or "mushrooming" (expanding rapidly in size or scope) and "to pop up like a mushroom" (to appear unexpectedly and quickly). [27][28] Even the cultivated A. bisporus contains small amounts of hydrazines, the most abundant of which is agaritine (a mycotoxin and carcinogen). In a 100 gram (3.5 ounce) amount, raw mushrooms provide 22 calories and are a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of B vitamins, such as riboflavin, niacin and pantothenic acid, selenium (37% DV) and copper (25% DV), and a moderate source (10-19% DV) of phosphorus, zinc and potassium (table). There are different scientific names for each different mushroom. Poisoning by wild mushrooms is common and may be fatal or produce merely mild gastrointestinal disturbance or slight allergic reaction. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [11], A hymenium is a layer of microscopic spore-bearing cells that covers the surface of gills. is formed (when the fruit body is sporulating). Image of orange, food, edible - 119338629 There are different scientific names for each different mushroom. Aside from maitake and Grifola frondosa, its scientific name, the mushroom is also referred to as sheep’s head, ram’s head, and hen-of-the-wood. ? It is formed within the mycelium, the mass of threadlike hyphae that make up the fungus. All mushrooms belong to the Fungi kingdom, however their phylum, class, family, and genus vary according to the mushroom type. Turkey tail fungus (Trametes versicolor). Their color, shape, size, attachment, ornamentation, and reaction to chemical tests often can be the crux of an identification. Typical mushrooms are the fruit bodies of members of the order Agaricales, whose type genus is Agaricus and type species is the field mushroom, Agaricus campestris. NOW 50% OFF! The US Department of Agriculture provided evidence that UV-exposed mushrooms contain substantial amounts of vitamin D.[17] When exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light, even after harvesting,[18] ergosterol in mushrooms is converted to vitamin D2,[19] a process now used intentionally to supply fresh vitamin D mushrooms for the functional food grocery market. Wild mushroom grey veiled amanita scientific name Amanita porphyria - Acheter cette photo libre de droit et découvrir des images similaires sur Adobe Stock The term "fungophobia" was coined by William Delisle Hay of England, who noted a national superstition or fear of "toadstools".[3][4][5]. [24] In 2014, Poland was the world's largest mushroom exporter, reporting an estimated 194,000 tonnes (191,000 long tons; 214,000 short tons) annually. In German folklore and old fairy tales, toads are often depicted sitting on toadstool mushrooms and catching, with their tongues, the flies that are said to be drawn to the Fliegenpilz, a German name for the toadstool, meaning "flies' mushroom". An atypical mushroom is the lobster mushroom, which is a deformed, cooked-lobster-colored parasitized fruitbody of a Russula or Lactarius, colored and deformed by the mycoparasitic Ascomycete Hypomyces lactifluorum. [20][21] In a comprehensive safety assessment of producing vitamin D in fresh mushrooms, researchers showed that artificial UV light technologies were equally effective for vitamin D production as in mushrooms exposed to natural sunlight, and that UV light has a long record of safe use for production of vitamin D in food.[20]. [13] The primordia form at ground level in lawns in humid spaces under the thatch and after heavy rainfall or in dewy conditions balloon to full size in a few hours, release spores, and then collapse. anybody got a good general family of mushroom name out there?? edible mushroom scientific name. The Discomycetes, which contain the cup, sponge, brain, and some club-like fungi, develop an exposed layer of asci, as on the inner surfaces of cup fungi or within the pits of morels. i have no idea what the name of the mushroom is or what family it is it has a small umbrella thing and has a thin stem thing and is grey. Puffballs lack a stalk, but may have a supporting base. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! As the egg expands, the universal veil ruptures and may remain as a cup, or volva, at the base of the stalk, or as warts or volval patches on the cap. The Latin word for mushroom, Poisonous mushrooms, or toadstools as they are commonly called, are the widely distributed members of the class Basidiomycetes, although only a few are known to be poisonous when eaten (see Table 5); some of the poisons, however, are deadly. The clavarias, or club fungi (e.g., Clavaria, Ramaria), are shrublike, clublike, or coral-like in growth habit. What dinosaur was a chicken-size predator? Mushroom, the conspicuous umbrella-shaped fruiting body (sporophore) of certain fungi, typically of the order Agaricales in the phylum Basidiomycota but also of some other groups. [citation needed], Similarly, there are other mushrooms, like Parasola plicatilis (formerly Coprinus plicatlis), that grow rapidly overnight and may disappear by late afternoon on a hot day after rainfall. lamella) on the underside of the cap. For example, Pleurotus nebrodensis grows slowly, and because of this combined with human collection, it is now critically endangered. [22], China is a major edible mushroom producer. GEM-STUDDED, PEAR-SHAPED, and GIANT PUFFBALLS Scientific names: Lycoperdon perlatum, L. pyriforme, Langermannia gigantea and others. Delineation between edible and poisonous fungi is not clear-cut, so a "mushroom" may be edible, poisonous, or unpalatable. Polypores usually grow on living or dead trees, sometimes as destructive pests. The scientific name of this mushroom is derived from the Greek word “agrarius” which means growing in the fields. The presence of juices upon breaking, bruising reactions, odors, tastes, shades of color, habitat, habit, and season are all considered by both amateur and professional mycologists. A spore often has a protrusion at one end, called an apiculus, which is the point of attachment to the basidium, termed the apical germ pore, from which the hypha emerges when the spore germinates. What are the scientific names of these mushrooms? Prepared by Allein Stanley and Sandy Sheine . In recent years, increasing affluence in developing countries has led to a considerable growth in interest in mushroom cultivation, which is now seen as a potentially important economic activity for small farmers. Coral MUSHROOM – (edible) Scientific name: Clavulina cristata. Other groups of fungi, however, are considered to be mushrooms, at least by laymen. Many mushroom species produce secondary metabolites that can be toxic, mind-altering, antibiotic, antiviral, or bioluminescent. By fresh weight, the common commercially grown mushroom is more than 90 percent water, less than 3 percent protein, less than 5 percent carbohydrate, less than 1 percent fat, and about 1 percent mineral salts and vitamins. Eating mushrooms gathered in the wild is risky and should only be undertaken by individuals knowledgeable in mushroom identification. Caesar's Mushroom . In the nongilled mushrooms, the hymenium lines the inner surfaces of the tubes of boletes and polypores, or covers the teeth of spine fungi and the branches of corals. Toxicity likely plays a role in protecting the function of the basidiocarp: the mycelium has expended considerable energy and protoplasmic material to develop a structure to efficiently distribute its spores. In reality, all species of mushrooms take several days to form primordial mushroom fruit bodies, though they do expand rapidly by the absorption of fluids. It belongs to the family Tricholomataceae and genus Lentinula. Several varieties of A. bisporus are grown commercially, including whites, crimini, and portobello. Even edible mushrooms may produce allergic reactions in susceptible individuals, from a mild asthmatic response to severe anaphylactic shock. One defense against consumption and premature destruction is the evolution of chemicals that render the mushroom inedible, either causing the consumer to vomit the meal (see emetics), or to learn to avoid consumption altogether. PRINCE MUSHROOM – (Non-edible) Scientific name: Agaricus augustus. THE SHAGGY MANE MUSHROOM Scientific name: Coprinus comatus The standard for the name "mushroom" is the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus; hence the word "mushroom" is most often applied to those fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes) that have a stem (stipe), a cap (pileus), and gills (lamellae, sing. Like many mushrooms, Psilocybe semilanceata is generally known not by its scientific designation, but by its common or folk name, the “liberty cap” mushroom. The Pyrenomycetes, tiny dark-colored fungi that live on a wide range of substrates including soil, dung, leaf litter, and decaying wood, as well as other fungi, produce minute, flask-shaped structures called perithecia, within which the asci develop. The cantharelloid fungi (Cantharellus and its relatives) are club-, cone-, or trumpet-shaped mushroomlike forms with an expanded top bearing coarsely folded ridges along the underside and descending along the stalk. Similar structures called cystidia often occur within the hymenium of the Basidiomycota. The stalk (also called the stipe, or stem) may be central and support the cap in the middle, or it may be off-center and/or lateral, as in species of Pleurotus and Panus. These gills produce microscopic spores that help the fungus spread across the ground or its occupant surface. Nov 30th, 2020 by . In other mushrooms, a stalk may be absent, as in the polypores that form shelf-like brackets. Tasting and smelling mushrooms carries its own hazards because of poisons and allergens. The specific epithet edodes is the Latin word for "edible". Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). As the cap expands, the veil breaks, and remnants of the partial veil may remain as a ring, or annulus, around the middle of the stalk or as fragments hanging from the margin of the cap. Popularly, the term mushroom is used to identify the edible sporophores; the term toadstool is often reserved for inedible or poisonous sporophores. Amanita muscaria, commonly known as the fly agaric or fly amanita, is a basidiomycete of the genus Amanita. Common best practice is for wild mushroom pickers to focus on collecting a small number of visually distinctive, edible mushroom species that cannot be easily confused with poisonous varieties. The mushrooms in this list include those in the main body of the book as well as those listed under " More Edible Mushrooms". Most mushrooms sold in supermarkets have been commercially grown on mushroom farms. Edible and poisonous wild mushroom identification guide. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. A mushroom or toadstool is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground, on soil, or on its food source. 10 Cultural or social phobias of mushrooms and fungi may be related. Another group of ascomycetes includes the cup fungi, with a cuplike or dishlike fruiting structure, sometimes highly coloured. Fruiting bodies of some mushrooms occur in arcs or rings called fairy rings. While mushrooms and toadstools (poisonous mushrooms) are by no means the most numerous or economically significant fungi, they are the most easily recognized. The scientific name of the genus Morchella itself, is thought to have derived from morchel, an old German word close to "Möhre", carrot or beet, due to similarity in shape. Maitake mushrooms begin growing in the late summer and continue until early autumn in the northeast United States. In 1901, Repin reported successfully obtaining fruit bodies in a cave in which cultures had been established in … Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products. Photos, video, safety tips for each mushroom. Cultivation. Scientific name: Hericium americanum, H. coralloides, H. erinaceus, etc. Among these are the hydnums or hedgehog mushrooms, which have teeth, spines, or warts on the undersurface of the cap (e.g., Dentinum repandum, Hydnum imbricatum) or at the ends of branches (e.g., H. coralloides, Hericium caput-ursi). The Common Mushroom's scientific name is Agaricus Bisporus. Some are among the most highly prized edible fungi (e.g., Morchella esculenta). The color of the powdery print, called a spore print, is used to help classify mushrooms and can help to identify them. Chang ST, 1996. Mushroom Research and Development - Equality and Mutual Benefit. Interspersed among the asci are threadlike sterile cells called paraphyses. "Mushroom" also describes a variety of other gilled fungi, with or without stems, therefore the term is used to describe the fleshy fruiting bodies of some Ascomycota. Name: Straw Mushroom: Scientific Name: Volvariella volvacea: Origin: Throughout East and Southeast Asia: Colors: Fully-grown pileus is greyish white with a reddish tinge: Shapes: Umbrella like fleshy structure attached to the stipe. Fruiting bodies, produced near the edge of this mat, may widen the ring for hundreds of years. However, in modern molecularly defined classifications, not all members of the order Agaricales produce mushroom fruit bodies, and many other gilled fungi, collectively called mushrooms, occur in other orders of the class Agaricomycetes. By extension, the term "mushroom" can also refer to either the entire fungus when in culture, the thallus (called a mycelium) of species forming the fruiting bodies called mushrooms, or the species itself. Mushrooms in the genera Agaricus, Amanita, Lepiota and Pluteus, among others, have free gills that do not extend to the top of the stalk. Some mushrooms are used or studied as possible treatments for diseases, particularly their extracts, including polysaccharides, glycoproteins and proteoglycans. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/science/mushroom, Utah State University - Department of Biology - Fun With Fungi, mushroom - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), mushroom - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Mushrooms are free of cholesterol and contain small amounts of essential amino acids and B vitamins. (Scientific name:Ophiocordyceps sinensis) Cordyceps militaris will grow within a glass bottle. Nahrung, 43(5):339-343. Spore print colors include white (most common), brown, black, purple-brown, pink, yellow, and creamy, but almost never blue, green, or red. Psilocybin mushrooms have been reported as facilitating profound and life-changing insights often described as mystical experiences. Puffballs (family Lycoperdaceae), stinkhorns, earthstars (a kind of puffball), and bird’s nest fungi are usually treated with the mushrooms. Historically in traditional Chinese medicine, mushrooms are believed to have medicinal value,[43] although there is no evidence for such uses. [9], A mushroom develops from a nodule, or pinhead, less than two millimeters in diameter, called a primordium, which is typically found on or near the surface of the substrate. The Common Mushroom is actually a particular mushroom and not a generic term. The ring may be skirt-like as in some species of Amanita, collar-like as in many species of Lepiota, or merely the faint remnants of a cortina (a partial veil composed of filaments resembling a spiderweb), which is typical of the genus Cortinarius. Before the invention of synthetic dyes, mushrooms were the source of many textile dyes.[44]. Of course it was accorded the name because it is the most commonly known and eaten mushroom across the world. Scientific Name: Rhodactis Sp. Test your knowledge of everything in science with this quiz. When to pick, what to look for. Wood mushroom : Scientific Name: Agaricus silvicola : Season Start: Aug : Season End: Nov : Average Mushroom height (CM) 8 : Average Cap width (CM) 10 : Please note that each and every mushroom you come across may vary in appearance to these photos. Thus, the term is more one of common application to macroscopic fungal fruiting bodies than one having precise taxonomic meaning. word for panther cap). Other unusual forms, not closely related to the true mushrooms but often included with them, are the jelly fungi (Tremella species), the ear fungus or Jew’s ear (Auricularia auriculara-judae), and the edible truffle. [39] In some countries, extracts of polysaccharide-K, schizophyllan, polysaccharide peptide, or lentinan are government-registered adjuvant cancer therapies,[40][41] even though clinical evidence of efficacy in humans has not been confirmed.[42]. Other mushrooms, such as truffles, jellies, earthstars, and bird's nests, usually do not have stalks, and a specialized mycological vocabulary exists to describe their parts. Mushrooms are used extensively in cooking, in many cuisines (notably Chinese, Korean, European, and Japanese). The button has a cottony roll of mycelium, the universal veil, that surrounds the developing fruit body. On the Internet? Oyster mushrooms, meadow mushrooms and button mushrooms all have different scientific classifications. Can you find pictures of these mushrooms in a book? People who collect mushrooms for consumption are known as mycophagists,[26] and the act of collecting them for such is known as mushroom hunting, or simply "mushrooming". Another scientific name for this mushroom is Coriolus versicolor - Acheter cette photo libre de droit et découvrir des images similaires sur Adobe Stock French agriculturist Olivier de Serres noted that transplanting mushroom mycelia would lead to the propagation of more mushrooms.

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