housatonic river pollution

December 6, 2020 in Uncategorized

The Housatonic River. GE, one of the richest companies in the world, argues that doing so would be too expensive and recently took its complaints to the EPA’s Environmental Appeals Board, an independent panel of judges sometimes referred to as the agency’s “Supreme Court.” GE’s preferred solution is to create a local PCB dump in the towns of Lee and Lenox or Great Barrington, something the Housatonic Rest of River Municipal Committee—which represents the six most affected towns—is not happy about. We will keep you informed with the latest alerts and progress reports. Rest of River Draft Revised 2020 Permit/Proposed Remedial Action, Supporting Documentation, And Public Comment, Massachusetts Department of Public Health ROR Biota Consumption Advisories Exit. Flow-duration curve for the Housatonic River near Great Bar­ rington gaging station for water years 1914-81 12 9-12. “Delay and fight, delay and fight—they’re just hoping to wear everybody down so they can get away with a lesser cleanup.”. Both parcels are contaminated with PCBs from GE's 250-acre Pittsfield plant. August 13, 2020. Managing river access sites a long-term goal. An official website of the United States government. “It makes up well over 30 percent of the nitrogen low that goes into the Black Rock Harbor,” Linderoth said, adding this could be associated with the harbor’s low score. Housatonic River Housatonic Watershed. By then, GE had already discharged an estimated 600,000 pounds of PCBs into the Housatonic. Tim Gray, executive director of the Housatonic River Initiative, travels a reach of the Housatonic River. As a result, the Housatonic's fish, wildlife, and their habitats suffered from the effects of these highly toxic compounds. On November 11, 2016, Governor Malloy of Connecticut applied for designation of the Housatonic River under Section 2(a)(ii) of the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. The company also dumped an estimated 1.3 million pounds of PCBs into the Hudson River, triggering a high-profile legal battle that NRDC has been involved with since the 1970s—and is still fighting today. In 2000, the U.S. Department of Justice, EPA, and GE managed to finalize a consent decree requiring GE to clean its PCBs from the Housatonic. If only they could all get along. Housatonic River. Now, nearly 40 years later, Berkshire communities, state governments, and environmental groups are still pushing GE to clean up its mess—a responsibility it has been avoiding. Housatonic River Connecticut River Thames River Mt. This agreement makes good on our longstanding commitment to a comprehensive cleanup of the Housatonic Rest of River that fully protects the environment. General Electric Co. polluted the river with PCBs from its once extensive Pittsfield plant. The earliest settlers, the Mahican Indians, migrated out of New York’s Hudson Valley, coming over the Taconic Mountains. “It’s always an uphill fight to get companies to take responsibility for their pollution and to make real headway,” Chasis says. The Housatonic River winds south from Vermont through Western Massachusetts and the town of Pittsfield on its way to Connecticut and eventually to Long Island Sound and the Atlantic Ocean. Produced and Directed by Mickey Friedman. Many rivers feed into Long Island Sound; however, two of New England's longest -- the 150-mile-long Housatonic and the 410-mile-long Connecticut rivers -- bring large amounts of pollution. The chemical was spilled, leaked or dumped into the Housatonic and carried downstream. Arriving in Massachusetts some 10,000 years ago, the Indians settled along the […] (And then don't go there.). We know Foxconn wants to take water from Lake Michigan, but what might it leave behind? Throughout the course of time, the Housatonic River has played a prominent role in the growth and development of the valley land which surrounds it. The Natural Resources Defense Council works to safeguard the earth - its people, Find a toxic waste dump near you! Because Pruitt has a history of siding with industry over public health, the future of the fight for the Housatonic’s remediation now looks more uncertain than ever. But PCBs were deliberately designed to persist under conditions that would cause other molecules to break down. Housatonic River PCB Problem. Washington The Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames River Basins Study Unit, 15,760 square miles in extent, includes eastern Vermont, western New Hampshire, west-central Massachusetts, nearly all of Connecticut, and small parts of New York, Rhode Island, and the Province of Quebec, Canada. “GE has been digging its heels in the whole way,” says Dennis Regan, the Berkshire director for the Housatonic Valley Association’s Water Protection division. Mercury pollution has transported with the river's current into the Housatonic River, and into the Long Island Sound. GE and the state are awaiting a decision from the federal Environmental Protection Agency over pollutants in the Housatonic River that the company stopped using almost 40 years ago. By then, GE had already discharged an estimated 600,000 pounds of PCBs into the Housatonic. The GE facility released the PCB contaminated wastewater into Silver Pond and the Housatonic River. And this was wasn’t GE’s only instance of PCB contamination in a northeastern river. … People live there.”. There’s good reason to fight so long and hard on the contamination. Environmentalists, the recreation industry, and lovers of the state’s great outdoors push back against new mine developments threatening their waters. In the mid-nineteen seventies, the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection discovered that PCBs are present in the surficial sediments in the Housatonic River in Connecticut, and also in fish taken from the river. Shortly before the Environmental Appeals Board hearing in June, the EPA circulated a memo saying it wanted to reopen negotiations with GE over the case. GE and the state are awaiting a decision from the federal Environmental Protection Agency over pollutants in the Housatonic River that the company stopped using almost 40 years ago. and Conn. United States Environmental Protection Agency, DRAFT REVISED 2020 PERMIT/PROPOSED REMEDIAL ACTION ON REST OF RIVER (PDF), 2020 STATEMENT OF BASIS FOR EPA'S PROPOSED REMEDIAL ACTION FOR THE HOUSATONIC RIVER "REST OF RIVER" (PDF), FACT SHEET: EPA SEEKS PUBLIC INPUT ON PROPOSED PERMIT MODIFCATION TO ENHANCE AND SPEED UP CLEANUP OF HOUSATONIC RIVER (PDF, Additional Information on the Draft Revised 2020 Permit, Public Comments and Hearing Transcripts on Draft Revised 2020 Permit. Proposed regulations would still allow wastewater to be disposed of in the watershed, with risks to both drinking water and the environment. The Housatonic River, which flows through Connecticut to Long Island Sound from the Massachusetts border, is seventh on a national conservation … These waters drain the Taconic and Berkshire Mountains before joining the Housatonic and eventually emptying into Long Island Sound. The “WARNING” signs dotting the river’s banks in Berkshire County hint at the less-than-tranquil reality teeming below the surface: “HOUSATONIC RIVER FISH & WATERFOWL CONTAMINATED WITH PCBs. It meanders under covered bridges and through Connecticut, eventually emptying into the Long Island Sound. Arriving in Massachusetts some 10,000 years ago, the Indians settled along the […] During much of the past 50 years, the General Electric plant on the north side of town, adjacent to the river, produced transformers. . “It’s heartbreaking to know that behind the scenes of that serene, beautiful natural world is a severely polluted system,” says Lauren Gaherty, a senior planner with the Berkshire Regional Planning Commission. After about an hour or two on a bus packed with kids, we arrived at our destination. The Housatonic River has been polluted for decades. Studies of this kind can aid regulatory and recreation resource administrators in devising and evaluating environmental programs. Historically, the Housatonic River and its Naugatuck River tributary hosted the southernmost spawning runs of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The project is located in a 50-acre tidal wetland along the east side of the Housatonic River in Milford, Connecticut, with several state and private owners. EPA and GE began a cleanup of the area in 1999. Throughout the course of time, the Housatonic River has played a prominent role in the growth and development of the valley land which surrounds it. Fast Facts: Housatonic River PCBs. This agreement makes good on our longstanding commitment to a comprehensive cleanup of the Housatonic Rest of River that fully protects the environment. The Housatonic River in Massachusetts and Connecticut has been polluted by suspected human carcinogen – and known cancer-causing agent in animals – since the 1930s when GE used the lubricant during transformer manufacturing at its Pittsfield plant. Gray's decades of work to address PCB pollution is featured in a new documentary, "The River … PITTSFIELD — The Environmental Protection Agency now seeks to settle its long dispute with the General Electric Co. over Housatonic River pollution, just months after ordering GE to embark on a $613 million cleanup.. The Salmon Creek tributary of the Housatonic River may have been named for this salmonid, which can reach up to 30 pounds (14 kg). Although the factory has long been closed, the PCBs still remain in the riverbed sediment for most of the river's downstream expanse within Massachusetts from the plant in Pittsfield to Woods Pond in Lenox. The story of GE's misuse of PCBs and the poisoning of Pittsfield, Massachusetts and the Housatonic River. The cows are moved to a new pasture and the level of PCBs in the milk drops by half. “It’s a lost resource to people in Berkshire County,” Gaherty says. The river shaped the growth of Connecticut during the industrial revolution by providing waterpower for mill towns like Shelton & Derby that sprang up along it’s banks. EPA, GE, and Stakeholders Reach Landmark Settlement Agreement to Enhance and Accelerate Cleanup of the Housatonic River Twenty years ago, GE committed to work with EPA to clean the Housatonic River. Thanks for signing up. (163.1 river miles) and 32 lakes (4,254 acres) in the Housatonic River Basin is presented in this assessment report. The river was essentially dead in the 1980s, but after Danbury constructed a new sewage treatment plant in 1993 the river rebounded. Yes, you. This page highlights information related to ongoing clean up issues for the Housatonic River in Western Mass. The P. Robinson Fur Cutting Company was one fur removal company sited on the Still River. And sure enough, GE is again pushing back against the EPA’s Housatonic plan. August 13, 2020. Housatonic River, Pittsfield, Massachusetts. © Natural Resources Defense Council 2020 Privacy Policy Mercury pollution has transported with the river's current into the Housatonic River, and into the Long Island Sound. First synthesized in the late 19th century, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are pervasive chemicals once used in hundreds of industrial applications, from plasticizing paint to insulating electrical equipment. The Housatonic River Watershed is located primarily in western Massachusetts and Connecticut. Many species of fish can now be found, and kayak ramps have been installed downriver from Danbury. In short: Once PCBs enter the environment, it’s not easy to get them out. Most of the contamination is found between the confluence of the East and West branches in Pittsfield and Woods Pond Dam in Lenox and further into Rising Pond in Great Barrington, MA. U.S. EPA - Housatonic River, Pittsfield, MA. People living near the former GE plant in Pittsfield can be exposed to PCBs when they come into direct contact with contaminated soil or river sediment, consume contaminated fish, or even eat crops grown in the Housatonic floodplain. Mercury pollution has transported with the river's current into the Housatonic River, and into the Long Island Sound. Beginning the early 1930s and stretching into the late 1970s, the multinational conglomerate dumped polychlorinated biphenyl or PCBs into the Housatonic River from its plant in Pittsfield. Local groups and government agencies are working together to remediate this Superfund site in the city’s midst, despite diminishing support from the EPA. The state of Connecticut, too, regularly releases advisories on eating Housatonic fish. However a small portion of the western headwaters of the river lie in eastern New York State. A subsequent report by the state Board of Health in 1915 described the river as badly polluted throughout its length and listed six municipal and 29 industrial waste sources on the river. Between 1932 and 1977, GE discharged polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other chemical wastes from its facility in Pittsfield, Mass, into the Housatonic River, which runs through western Massachusetts and Connecticut. He requested that the river be managed and administered through the local Housatonic River Commission. DO NOT EAT.”. He requested that the river be managed and administered through the local Housatonic River Commission. General Electric’s plant in Pittsfield dumped large amounts of toxic chemicals known as PCBs into the Housatonic River from the 1930s to the 1970s. I looked around and saw a beautiful scenic view of a river surrounded by forests teeming with life, but something didn’t feel quite right. Housatonic River Management Plan Dodson Associates, Ltd. September 2006 Housatonic River, Salisbury, CT Executive Summary The Housatonic River Commission (HRC) was created by the Towns of Canaan, Cornwall, Kent, New Milford, North Canaan, Salisbury and Sharon and held its … Maps showing: 9. New Yorkers are resisting efforts to sextuple the number of anchorage grounds in the river and transform their backyard into a parking lot for oil barges. A report by the state Sewage Commission dated 1899 stated that the Naugatuck River had reached the limit of permissible pollution due to the discharge of industrial wastes and municipal sewage. 2020 statement of basis for epa's proposed remedial action for the housatonic river "rest of river" (pdf) (40 pp, 6.6 mb, about pdf) fact sheet: epa seeks public input on proposed permit modifcation to enhance and speed up cleanup of housatonic river (pdf) (2 pp, 837 k, about pdf) additional information on the draft revised 2020 permit Now families are demanding answers. And with only a partial cleanup effort for that river completed, the PCB levels in its fish are still not safe for human consumption. And the company’s reasoning has shifted over the years. When the company left, the departure devastated the area and left behind a legacy of toxic contamination in the Housatonic River, which flows into Long Island Sound. Black Rock Harbor, which received a score of 65 percent, has an added challenge: It is the site of the Bridgeport West Side Water Pollution Control Facility. How much longer will the total cleanup take? General Electric was a major user of PCBs, including at its riverside plant in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, from the 1930s until the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency banned the production of the chemicals in the late 1970s. General Electric Co., which is moving its headquarters to Boston, objects to a new federal plan that … To add to the list of their nightmarish qualities, certain PCBs can volatilize, or evaporate into the air, where they can be inhaled or spread by weather systems and fall back down to the ground in rain or snow. Results indicate regional benefits associated with an abatement program instituted for point source pollution along the Housatonic River during the 1960's were substantial. Tim Gray, executive director of the Housatonic River Initiative, travels a reach of the Housatonic River. “PCBs are just thoroughly horrible,” says Dan Raichel, an NRDC staff attorney. one of the richest companies in the world, Her Stand-Up Paddleboard Is a Platform for Campaigning Against Plastic Pollution, One of America’s Great Rivers Fights for Its Life, Week 23: Trump’s EPA Chief Doesn’t Understand Where River Water Comes From, Scott Pruitt Wants to Take Us Back to the ’50s, All Hands In to Repair Seattle’s Polluted Duwamish River, For the Delaware River Basin, a Partial Fracking Ban Is a Partial Victory, The Impact a Wisconsin LCD Plant May Have on the Great Lakes Is Not Crystal Clear, Montanans Find Their Scenery More Precious Than Copper or Gold, After Children Began Getting Sick by the Dozens, Parents Took a Hard Look at Their Town’s Toxic Legacy. When the river overflowed its banks, the pollution was deposited along the floodplain. August 13, 2020 PCBs are persistent in the environment, resistant to degradation, and accumulate quickly in the body. . And the area has been fighting with the company ever since to get the issue resolved. Annual peak-streamflow frequency curve for the Housatonic River near Great Barrington gaging station for water years 1914-82 11 8. The Housatonic River, which flows through Connecticut to Long Island Sound from the Massachusetts border, is seventh on a national conservation … Wildlife and Human Health Effects from PCBs, Understanding the Housatonic Rest of River and Floodplain Risk Assessments, View a larger version of this map: Cleanup Areas in Focus for the GE/Housatonic River Site, Housatonic River Advisory Fact Sheet (English), Housatonic River Advisory Fact Sheet (Spanish), View Housatonic River Cleanup photos on Flickr, GE Housatonic River EPA Public Hearing on Rest of River Permit Revisions. Since then, the company has dredged the first two miles downstream of the Pittsfield plant, along with some other properties nearby, including an elementary school playground. Housatonic River Connecticut River Thames River Mt. On November 11, 2016, Governor Malloy of Connecticut applied for designation of the Housatonic River under Section 2(a)(ii) of the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. Results indicate regional benefits associated with an abatement program instituted for point source pollution along the Housatonic River during the 1960's were substantial. Increasing crowds along river have area leaders mobilizing. “It pretty much runs the gamut in terms of illness-causing,” Raichel says. View a larger version of this map: Cleanup Areas in Focus for the GE/Housatonic River Site. Concerns about river visitors and the fishing. Hockanum River Water Pollution Control Facility Upgrade TM 169 Main Street, 700 Plaza Middlesex Middletown, CT 06457 www.wright-pierce.com Manchester, connecticut Project Overview Originally constructed in the mid 1950s as a primary treatment facility, the Hockanum River WPCF was ex-panded in 1970 to provide for secondary treatment. The marsh is connected to the Housatonic River by a man-made tidal channel; this tidal creek is effectively the primary channel of a remnant grid pattern of mosquito ditches. “This is their M.O.,” Gaherty says. Fish and wildlife throughout the Housatonic watershed have tested at very high concentrations of PCBs, and both Massachusetts and Connecticut have issued consumption advisories. The Housatonic River Watershed is located primarily in western Massachusetts and Connecticut. The Housatonic River is a favorite of New England fly-fishers, kayakers, and hikers. The Los Angeles River—as faded and forgotten a Hollywood starlet as there ever was—could be poised for a comeback. Lizzie Carr is shining a light on what is floating through the world’s waterways, and breaking athletic records along the way. Housatonic River and the Housatonic River in Massachusetts 8 7. Twenty years ago, GE committed to work with EPA to clean the Housatonic River. Under the Trump administration, the decades-long battle to get the company to clean up its PCB mess looks more uncertain than ever. Why cleanup the GE Site and the Housatonic River? PCBs bind to soil, sediment, and the fatty tissues of animals. EPA and GE began a cleanup of the area in 1999. When you sign up you'll become a member of NRDC's Activist Network. Unfortunately, this industrial heritage created pollution problems that limited it’s recreational value. Decades may seem like a long time for contaminants to linger in a moving body of water. The following is a summary of the Aquatic Life, Fish Consumption, Primary and Fish and wildlife throughout the Housatonic watershed have tested at very high concentrations of PCBs, and both Massachusetts and Connecticut have issued consumption advisories. The Crane Paper Company is also a source of river pollution. From there they work their way up the food chain, starting with the small invertebrates that find their food in the riverbed and eventually accumulating in the bigger fish and waterbirds that eat them. The incoming head of the EPA believes states should be in charge of their own environmental regulations. Still, the hearing went forward as planned. You'll receive your first NRDC action alert and update email soon. GE, or … Housatonic River Management Plan Dodson Associates, Ltd. September 2006 Housatonic River, Salisbury, CT Executive Summary The Housatonic River Commission (HRC) was created by the Towns of Canaan, Cornwall, Kent, New Milford, North Canaan, Salisbury and Sharon and held its … Flowing through the rolling hills of Berkshire County, Massachusetts, the river makes an idyllic backdrop to the region’s famous fall foliage. From circa 1932 until 1977, the river received PCB pollution discharges from the General Electric (GE) plant at Pittsfield, Massachusetts.The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designated the Pittsfield plant and several miles of the Housatonic to be a Superfund site in 1997, and ordered GE to remediate the site. Boston — A Connecticut-based highway construction company has agreed to pay $100,000 and restore riverbanks along the Housatonic River to settle allegations that its actions at its mining and manufacturing facility in Lee led to the unlawful alteration of those areas and the discharge of industrial material and stormwater pollution into the river, Attorney General Maura Healey announced today. Skip to Article. Wind and ocean currents have facilitated their long-distance travel around the world—not even denizens of the poles or the bottom of the Marianas Trench have escaped the reach of PCBs. The carcinogen TCE has been lurking in the ground beneath Franklin, Indiana, for decades. The latest point of contention is where the PCBs should go once removed from the river. 2K likes. Originally, GE contradicted the prevailing science by claiming there was no evidence that PCBs are harmful to human health. The Massachusetts Department of Public Health warns against eating fish, frogs, turtles, or ducks from the river, and though the Housatonic is a popular recreational fishing destination, it’s strictly catch and release. Multiple studies have proved the chemicals cause cancer in animals, and the EPA classifies them as probable human carcinogens. The cost of removing PCBs from the river is prohibitively expensive. Housatonic River Initiative, Lenox Dale, Massachusetts. Complicating things further is Scott Pruitt, the EPA administrator under President Trump. Under the EPA’s plan, GE must take the contaminated soil out of state to a licensed toxic waste facility. The river was essentially dead in the 1980s, but after Danbury constructed a new sewage treatment plant in 1993 the river rebounded. and Conn. “These environmental battles can take a long time,” says Sarah Chasis, a senior attorney at NRDC who worked on the Hudson case against GE 40 years ago. GE and the state are awaiting a decision from the federal Environmental Protection Agency over pollutants in the Housatonic River that the company stopped using almost 40 years ago. When the company left, the departure devastated the area and left behind a legacy of toxic contamination in the Housatonic River, which flows into Long Island Sound. Washington The Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames River Basins Study Unit, 15,760 square miles in extent, includes eastern Vermont, western New Hampshire, west-central Massachusetts, nearly all of Connecticut, and small parts of New York, Rhode Island, and the Province of Quebec, Canada. U.S. EPA - Housatonic River, Pittsfield, MA. These waters drain the Taconic and Berkshire Mountains before joining the Housatonic and eventually emptying into Long Island Sound. And now, those people await the board’s decision. Housatonic River Housatonic Watershed. Decades of industrial pollution and neglect have taken their toll on the river, but things are starting to turn around thanks to clean water legislation, dedicated local partners and innovative programs. August 13, 2020. Results indicate regional benefits associated with an abatement program instituted for point source pollution along the Housatonic River during the 1960's were substantial. The earliest settlers, the Mahican Indians, migrated out of New York’s Hudson Valley, coming over the Taconic Mountains. The Housatonic is famously the subject of long-running and controversial cleanup efforts. The EPA plans to rescind the Clean Water Rule, and the Senate gives Scott Pruitt a tongue-lashing. GE and the state are awaiting a decision from the federal Environmental Protection Agency over pollutants in the Housatonic River that the company stopped using almost 40 years ago. From circa 1932 until 1977, the river received PCB pollution discharges from the General Electric (GE) plant at Pittsfield, Massachusetts.The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designated the Pittsfield plant and several miles of the Housatonic to be a Superfund site in 1997, and ordered GE to remediate the site. However a small portion of the western headwaters of the river lie in eastern New York State. but right now it harbors toxic materials,” said Stephen Hutchinson, the group’s regional director. 2K likes. Housatonic River. State Disclosures. Lighter river use follows the storms. The river was essentially dead in the 1980s, but after Danbury constructed a new sewage treatment plant in 1993 the river rebounded. August 13, 2020. And this was wasn’t GE’s only instance of PCB contamination in a northeastern river. The Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint river system brings precious water to three southern states. The Still River, running north from Danbury to New Milford, is the most polluted tributary in the Housatonic watershed. Gustafson Farm in Watertown becomes part of Connecticut Farmland Trust. Slight progress is still progress, but 125 miles of contaminated river still remain. Many species of fish can now be found, and kayak ramps have been installed downriver from Danbury. Gray's decades of work to address PCB pollution is featured in a new documentary, "The River … its plants and animals, and the natural systems on which all life depends. “You don't put a hazardous waste site next to a river,” Pawa told the board. GE, a $260 billion company, has used its considerable resources to argue that it shouldn’t get them out. The EPA unveiled a $613 million plan last October that would span 13 years and require GE to dredge another 10 miles. Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem. “And persist,” Raichel says, “is exactly what they do in the environment.”. But even if you’ve never supped from this river—or live nowhere near it—you almost certainly have PCBs in your body. The Housatonic River and its floodplain are heavily contaminated with PCBs originating from the GE Facility in Pittsfield, MA. As pressure from the EPA and affected towns grew, GE changed tactics, arguing that disturbing the river sediment in a cleanup effort would make the contamination worse. July 10, 1970: During a routine sample analysis, PCBs are discovered in the milk of William De vos’ cows, which graze on a farm in Lenox beside the Housatonic River. “You don't plunk it down in the middle of a community. PCBs—all 200-plus types of them—are, to varying degrees, toxic to people and wildlife. This page highlights information related to ongoing clean up issues for the Housatonic River in Western Mass. Studies of this kind can aid regulatory and recreation resource administrators in devising and evaluating environmental programs. HW011,2 B0021 36.6 West Branch Housatonic River - ~300m downstream/south from Route 20 bridge, Pittsfield, MA 29-Aug-2007 KR071,2 B0012 38.5 Konkapot River - downstream/south from Mil River Southfield Road, adjacent to Clayton Mill River Road, (V illage of Mill River), New Marlborough, MA 28-Aug-2007 EB02A2 B0503 57.5 An understanding of the mechanisms for the transport of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as their reactions with sediments should help in developing strategies for removal and disposal of sediments in contaminated rivers. Working for a fishable, swimmable Housatonic River since 1992. PCBs are persistent in the environment, resistant to degradation, and accumulate quickly in the body. PCBs can also do significant harm to the immune and endocrine systems, affect reproduction, impair neurological development, elevate blood pressure, and cause skin rashes that can last for years.

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