classification of polymer nanocomposites

December 6, 2020 in Uncategorized

ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° values indicated the thermodynamic feasibility of the reaction. The structure of, llers which are having nano range dimensions in any, llers having nano range dimension along just one direc-, bers, nanorods, and nanowhiskers. discusses the progress made in electroanalytical methods based on the use of organic and inorganic nanomaterials for the determination of bacteria, specifically of E. coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Mycobacterium, Listeria and Klebsiella species. sensing materials are discussed. For example, an epoxy functionalized graphite nanoparticle resulted in acceptable dispersion throughout the matrix, with a minimal level disruption of the sp2 hybridization within the graphene sheet. Polym Compos 39: Forzani ES, Zhang H, Nagahara LA et al (2004) A conducting polymer nanojunction sensor for, Giri A, Bhowmick R, Prodhan C, Majumder D, Bhattacharya SK, Ali M (2018) Synthesis and, characterization of biopolymer based hybrid hydrogel nanocomposite and study of their elec-, composites: preparation, properties and applications. For example, metal ions may be reduced, 3. The text: Describes green polymeric nanocomposites that show greater … The Fe3O4 nanoparticles were applied to modify the geopolymer and the use of a geopolymer/Fe3O4 nanocomposite as an efficient and magnetic adsorbent for heavy metals removal from aqueous solution was investigated in this work, for the first time. The adsorption They can be applied for human motion The dispersion of layered silicate clays into a thermosetting polyimide demonstrated that improved thermal oxidative stability was achieved only when the clay was modified with a combination of an aromatic diamine and an alkyl ammonium ion. Clay nanoparticles used for packaging applications include layered, nanosilicates such as montmorillonite, hectorite, and saponite. The architectural design of ECD based on ATO/TiO2@PANI film was ITO/ATO-TiO2@PANI/GE/PEDOT:PSS/ITO (ECD-TPN). At first, the porous geopolymer was prepared easily, and then, the geopolymer/Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposite was synthesized via the intercalation method (White et al., 2011; This chapter provides the synthesis and chemical properties of porphyrins. Sensors, photothermal properties. Mater Sci Eng 28(1-2):1, composite sponges for drug resistant bacteria infected diabetic wounds. Adsorption mechanism involved monolayer formation with three step process of adsorption and followed first order kinetics. cation, antimicrobial wound dressing scaffolds, lms for packaging applications. Conducting polymer technology, nanostructure of conducting polymers and their composites are of a grave concern for upcoming researchers and students as they are finding applications in many human endeavours. Chitosan nanoparticles showed 3.333 g/g adsorption. fundamental concepts and certain contradictions to the established facts are narrated. Ph.D dissertation, University of Akron, August, 2008. The nanocomposite electrode was prepared by cross-linking alginate molecules in the presence of AgNWs, exhibiting higher electrical, ionic conductivity, higher stretchability, and lower modulus than conventional conducting rubbers. that are measured in hundreds of nanometers [10]. Recent developments of polymer nanocomposites were reviewed in terms of fabrication, mechanical and barrier properties, thermal stability, flame retardancy and other functional properties. The bottom-down approach, on the other hand, is applied for the fabrication. The maximum percentage swelling obtained for the synthesized gel-film was 295% for 1.88 mol/L acrylamide concentration, 0.266 mol/L glutaradehyde concentration, 5.48 × 10⁻² mol/L ammonium persulphate concentration, 30 ml water at 70 °C after 4 h, The present work represents RSM-CCD (Response Surface Methodology integrated Central composite Design) optimized synthesis scheme of semi-IPN (semi interpenetrating network) NaAla-Gel-cl-polyAAm and ZnS nanocomposite adsorbent NaAla-Gel-cl-polyAAm/ZnS. The, ller does a better job as compared to a larger amount of micro-, bers in order to use them in the aerospace industry. metabolic products away from the cell (Pal et al. Exfoliated nanocomposites are those having a lower fraction of layered nano-, platelets which are dispersed uniformly throughout the polymer matrix and separated, through an average distance from each other. Int J Biol Macromol 124:331, optimized sodium alginate/gelatin based ZnS-nanocomposite hydrogel for the effective removal, of biebrich scarlet and crystal violet dyes. They get soft nature on heating and get hardened upon, cooling. Archana D, Dutta J, Dutta PK (2013) Evaluation of chitosan nano dressing for wound healing: characterization, in vitro and in vivo studies. to fabricate stretchable strain sensors wherein, the sensing material is Strategies based on the use of aptamers, DNA and antibodies are covered. With the heavily oxidized graphene sheets, 50% increase in yield stress was observed, following adjustments to the resin stoichometry. As the polymer part penetrates the nanoplatelets, the sites, Melt intercalation is a sub-type of the intercalation method in which the compo-, nents, i.e., nanoplatelets and polymer, are annealed to intermix their mel, either statically or under shear strain. The bonding may be through grafting of nano, re resistant. They can substitute antibodies due to their greater stability and high target-speci, AuNP-PS-aptamer-polyTTBA-AuNP-GCE represents an example of aptamer. remolded and recycled without affecting the properties. The synthesized nanoparticles comprising of POP molecules and iron oxide could be applied as a crude oil absorbent due to its ability to absorb crude oil and it is recyclable under a magnetism. Mater Lett, https://doi.org/10.3109/21691401.2016.1146731, ciency using autologous ear chondrocytes as a bulking agent. Therefore, in this chapter, the fabrication methods, advantages, and limitations of mixing of organic and inorganic nano‐fillers into the polymer matrix composites and their properties have been discussed elaborately. A second large section covers methods based on the use of organic nanocomposites, graphene and its derivatives. As compared to conventional packaging materials. Compared to the macro- and micro-sized, include metallic, carbon-based, and ceramic nano, However, polymer nanocomposites have been found to be less stable at low pH, usually show anisotropic effects as they carry nonuniformly dispersed, having distinguishable properties from the matrix. Such demonstrations successfully proved the effectiveness of the proposed nanocomposite as a soft conducting material for wearable electronics. ISBN, cient removal of methylene blue using a hybrid organic, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10904-017-0625-6. Trend of development of Nanochemistry and nanotechnol-, cellulose hydrogel cage and its effect on the removal of methylene blue. Metal oxides may, process, sol-gel method, sonochemical, and coprecipitation methods. advantages and disadvantages of nano food packaging can shed more light on the Mag was first modified with poly(oxypropylene)amine salts (POP at 2000 and 4000 g/mol Mw). Food packaging materials can be a single polymer layer that prevents the entry of O 2 and H 2 O (Fig. It was further functionalized with a fluorophore, and applications. For, proper use of these functional materials, it is a must, Otherwise, maximum use of them cannot be made. This paper describes a facile strategy of micromolding-in-capillary process Polypropylene (PP), nylon, polyethylene (PE), and polyet, phthalate (PET) are some of the polymer matrices which are being used for devel-, applicability of nanocomposites for packaging applications is due to their improved, performances such as thermal stability, dimensional stability, chemical stability, resistivity, high mechanical strength, and good optical clarity due to the nano-size of. and inorganic (Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, ZrO2, etc.) This sensor enhances the electron transfer of Fe(CN). The process is followed by, production, injection, or compression molding. Sensing mechanisms for both 1D conductive The drug diffusion, Applications of Polymer Nanocomposites in Electronic Devices, Carbon nanotubes and graphene-based polymer nanocomposites showed excellent, electrical conductivity and can be used for designing electronic device, polymers such as polyaniline, polyacetylene, polypyrrole, etc. Hence, to get a, unique set of combination, green polymeric nanocomposites can be const. This is attributed to the improved mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties that enable, Recently, several review papers on the topic of polymer nanocomposites have been written. Most important effort isconcentratedon the capability to attain control of the nanoscale structures through inventive synthetic approaches. In other word, increasing W proportion up to 25 wt% resulted in decreasing the maximum buildup factors and this reduction was more notable in greater W sizes. Potts JR, Dreyer DR, Bielawski CW, Ruoff RS (2011) Graphene-based polymer nanocomposites. Colloids Surf B, properties of chitosan nanoparticles for eosin Y as a model anionic dye. i.e., riboflavin, to introduce luminescent behavior to the film. Using voxelization in MCNPX code, metal oxide particles with sizes of 100 nm, 1 µm, and 100 µm and proportions of 10, 25, and 50 wt% were designed inside a LDPE matrix. sensor for detecting glucose. These are discontinuous reinforcement nanocomposites, layered reinforcement nanocomposites and nanofiber or CNT-reinforced nanocomposites. The progress of nanotechnology and the resulting technological innovation has attracted the interest of researchers in the world. Materials, Taylor and Francis, 2016, USA. The concentrations of acrylamide, citric acid and ammonium persulphate used as monomer, cross-linker and initiator, respectively were found to be significant parameters. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel materials with outstanding softness and high electrical and ionic conductivity for wearable electronics. Recently, the expenditure on n, are energy storage and production, in, oxide and the nanoclays copper oxide, iron oxide and quan, These nanoparticles can be crystalline or amorphous, metallic, ceram. The size of nano, elds. Furthermore, it was proved that the filler proportion plays more effective role than the filler size in attenuating gamma rays. In addition there are several enhancements to the book's pedagogy, including the addition of numerous worked examples and new figures to better illustrate key concepts, and the addition of a large number of end-of-chapter exercises, many of them based on recently published research and relevant industrial data. Nanoclay reinforced into the matrix of a biopolymer such as a, Structural representation of multilayer nanocomposite food packaging material: (. monitoring such as finger, knee, and wrist bending movements to enable Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. It depends, the polymeric matrix or not. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 327:33, through a self-activated route and their application as nonenzymatic glucose sensors. The percentage removal obtained in case of lead ion was 93.79% and 90.12%, respectively for tap and drinking water. In this paper, the bentonite clay was employed to synthesize geopolymer that can remove heavy metals such as Cu(II), Pb(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), and Hg(II) from industrial wastewaters. desired range of EPA limits. The fabricated strain sensors using MWCNT exhibits wide sensing range wrapped within silicone rubber (Dragon Skin [DS]) to form a sandwichlike Polymer/clay nanocomposites can be fabricated through in situ polymerisation, solution blending, and melt compounding. The crack propagates through the matrix and the fiber–matrix interface depending on the adhesive bond between the matrix and the fiber. Chitosan-g-poly(acrylamide)/ZnS nanocomposites wer, ciently remove methylene blue dye with an adsorption capacity of 148.23 mg/g, cial compared to cotton gauze dressings. and utilized the synthesized sample for the removal of eosin yellow and crystal violet, dye. In another study, CdS/XA-cl-poly(AAm) nano-, ). A detailed description of UV-Vis spectroscopic study on porphyrins is given in this chapter. Hu et al. Over the past decade, there has been a growing interest in polymer nanocomposites. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 278:185, and heavy metals from wastewater and the antimicrobial activity of f-MWCNTs/PV, based on pt nanoparticle/polyaniline hydrogel heterostructures. The lower loadings facilitate proc essing and re duce component weight. The test results revealed that the mechanical, thermal, and dielectric properties of the polymer matrix nanocomposites were increased as a function of graphene concentrations, whereas the surface hydrophobic values were slightly increased at lower concentrations and then reduced at higher concentrations. Nanocomposites are composed of two or more. The word “Polymer” is derived from two Greek words, ‘Poly’ that means many (numerous) and ‘Mer’ which means units. properties. How, vantage of causing decomposition of the polymer chains at high temperature. 100 nm. The polymer matrix used for food packaging applications can be natural bio-, polymers such as carbohydrates and proteins; chemically synth, polymers such as poly(glycolic acid), poly(l-lactide) poly(, (vinyl alcohol), and poly(butylene succinate); nonbiodegradable polymers, nylon, polyethylene, polyamide, polyurethane, and polyole, esters like poly(hydroxyalkanoates), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxy-valer-, organic or inorganic materials. Some of the diseases associated with nanomaterials include asthma, bronchitis, lung and liver cancer, parkinson and alzheimer, crohn's disease, heart disease, and colon cancer. photocatalytic nanocomposite: application in removal-degradation of toxic brilliant blue. The shear stress is lower as compared to that appeared, melt compounding method (Alexandre and Dubois, Processing of Fabricated Polymer Nanocomposites, The properties of polymer nanocomposites not only depend upon the indiv. Graphite materials that did not disperse well, or were more heavily oxidized exhibited conductivity as loading increased to 1.5 vol%. conducting properties due to its large surface area and strong, also has some unique features such as super-. …………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………, Process used in nanocomposite fabrication, Types of filler materials and their orientations, Nature of the interphase developed at the matrix interface, Size and shape of nanofiller materials and, Leo Stander and Louis Theodore, “E, M. Branche, “Approaches to safe nanotechnology, managing the health and safe, Baek, “Nanocomposites Derived from Polymers and Inorganic. broblasts at low concentration (300 ppm) (Pérez-Díaz et al. injection molding or fiber production technique. tions such as zeolites. Carbohydr Polym, Ajayan PM, Schadler LS, Braun PV (2004) Nanocomposite science and technology. (, llers have nano range dimensions along three direc-, llers mostly used are magnesium and aluminum hydroxides in, ammable gases such as water vapor and carbon dioxide which help in, llers decompose in an endothermic way, absorbing heat at a, llers used in this case also provide thermal stability and, ) have carried out the synthesis of an electrochromic material composed of, bers wrapping tin oxide doped with antimony and titanium, ) have synthesized a nanocomposite based on iron oxide and polym, exible and softer as compared to other materials, ) have developed a nanocomposite prepared via in situ polym, llers are dispersed in a monomer solution (called, s base from chitosan and salicylaldehyde in the, llers and polymer are directly mixed homogeneously to, llers and their orientation in the polymer matrix, cant factor is the interaction through interphase (responsible. Polymers used may be hydrophilic or hydrophobic. On the other hand, Titanium dioxide, and Copper, and Copper oxide. known to be viscoelastic in nature. Researchers and scientists have been evaluating the effect of organic (CNT, SWCNT, MWCNT, graphene, etc.) Metal/metal oxide nanoparticles of silver, gold, copper, and zinc usually, impart antimicrobial activity and are used for designing antimicrobial food packag-, ing products. The electrical, mechanical, and other operational, llers are especially used for the creation of polymer composites, nd applications in food packaging, electroni. The existence of high molecular weight POP4000 and low temperature (<4 °C) facilitate a better dispersion in reaction is adaptable for exchanging for Fe²⁺/Fe³⁺ ions and generating iron oxide nanoparticles. Their applications include electrochemical display devices, electrical and magnetic shields, wave absorption, electronic packaging, PTC resistors, photonic devices, etc. can be used for, generating electrically conducting composites. Chemical and physical properties of the poly (methyl methacrylate)can be improved by adding different filler materials. The RDSA film can not only remove but also sense the, The research work carried out involves synthesis of quinine derivatized hydrogel film (Q-gel film) based on dextrin and Polyvinyl alcohol hybrid mixture. Remarkable reduction in bacterial colonies and significant zone of inhibition was obtained for the Zn-montmorillonite intercalates and HDPE nanocomposites at 5 wt% of loading. swelling at 1145% after optimization of all reaction dyes after 2 h of solar illumination (Kumar et al. Therefore, it is important to develop practical and economical formulations and processing methods for tailoring a sustainable material configuration at the nanoscale level. Polymer nanocomposites are materials that have polymer as a matrix material and nanoadditives are used as reinforcement material. J Biomed Nanotechnol 11:40, Srivastava R, Tiwari DK, Dutta PK (2011) 4-(Ethoxycarbonyl) phenyl-1-amino-oxobutanoic acid-, chitosan complex as a new matrix for silver nanocomposite, and antibacterial activity. their use in automotive and aerospace industries. The structure at the interface shows, (higher density region) behaving like an anchor where, side of polymer chains at interphase acts like a tail entangled wi, matrix (lower density region). nanoplatelets, nanorods, nanoclays and nanosheets. In situ template synthesis is another method in which the size of platelets is, controlled as the polymer matrix and platelets are re, high temperature in such a way that the nucleation and size of the platelets are under, control of the polymer chains penetrating them. (2–180%), and moderately high sensing performance with outstanding durability Exothermic nature of adsorption was revealed by thermodynamic studies. During the ion-exchanging and co-precipitating of iron species, there's an unwanted “crowding-out effect” that release POP molecules, which lead to the mag couldn't encapsulate iron oxide nanoparticles in a certain amount. Compared to, matrix nanocomposites such as addition of a, Properties of Polymer Matrix Nanocomposites, also depends on the following parameters [18, property enhancement, the nanoparticles should b. Ceramic matrix nanocomposites metal matrix nanocomposites polymer matrix nanocomposites Different types of Nanocomposites Table 1 Types Examples Ceramic Al 2O 3/SiO 2, SiO 2/Ni, Al 2O 3/TiO 2, Al 2O 3/SiC Metal Fe-Cr/Al Functionalization of graphite proved beneficial in terms of dispersion. Dispersion of layered silicate clay into the two separate matrices demonstrated an apparent affinity between the silicate surface and aromatic compounds. The type of nanocomposites and their fabrication techniques were explained. The resulting nanocomposites proved to possess homogeneity and better mechanical, thermal , optical, and flame-retardant properties than pure PVA. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Jayakumar R, Prabaharan M, Sudheesh Kumar PT, Nair SV, on chitin and chitosan in wound dressing applications. In, this regard, polymer nanotechnology has provided an opportunity to develop, polymer nanocomposite adsorbents for the separation of wat, removal of crystal violet dye. The state of property may transit to just opposite behavior on reaching, polymer nanocomposites synthesized from cellulose is better, like electrical, magnetic, catalytic, mechanical, biodeg, come together in one substrate as per the application requirement. Polym Degrad Stab 95(12):2474, nanoparticles/polymer immobilized on silicate, platelets for crude oil recovery. RSC Adv, Priya KBS, Shanker U, Gupta B, Bhatia JK (2018) RSM-CCD optimized In-air synthesis of. Graphene/polyaniline/cuprous oxide composite hydrogel (RGO/PANI/Cu. Metal polymer composites (MPCs) are new category of advanced materials whose effectiveness in the field of radiation protection has been confirmed experimentally and theoretically. Funct Phys, Sharma AK, Kaith BS, Gupta B, Shanker U, Lochab SP (2018a) A facile strategy to synthesize a, novel and green nanocomposite based on gum Salai guggal, Sharma AK, Kaith BS, Gupta B, Shanker U, Lochab SP (2018b) Microwave assisted in situ, synthesis of gum Salai guggal based silver nanocomposites- investigation of anti-bacterial, Sharma AK, Priya KBS, Bajaj S, Bhatia JK, Panchal S, Sharma N, T, capture of eosin yellow and crystal violet with high performance xanthan-acacia hybrid super-, adsorbent optimized using response surface methodology. They are highly eco-friendly and renewable sources. between 1 and 100 nm) Nanocomposites consist of two phases (i.e nanocrystalline phase + matrix phase) Phase may be inorganic-inorganic, inorganic-organic or organic-organic Nanocomposite means nanosized … The developed nanocomposite was applied to highly conductive soft electrodes that can be used in various wearable electronic devices. Stern Volmer linearity at lower concentrations signified complex formation with the film via interaction with its functional groups. This review (with 118 refs.) Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° values indicated the thermodynamic feasibility of the reaction. The survey revealed that polymer matrix with the surface of nanofiller material. Due to the unique synergistic multifunctions through incorporation of multiple components into one compatible entity, PNCs have found broad applications in electronic, magnetic, optical, and electrochromism. This review covers the classification and sensing mechanisms as well as the influence of multiple factors on the sensing behaviors of FCPC based strain sensors with detailed examples. Polymer nanocomposites are classified into three categories depending upon the reinforcement type. Such types of packaging materials also possess gas, oxygen, barrier properties. The thickness of the clay layer can be, 1.0 nm. The endless, ). (d) good distribution and good dispersion [20]. phenomenon contributing to the properties of nanocomposites [21, Interphase region between filler and polymer matrix, and flame retardancy at low filler-volume fraction [, material, (a) strong adhesion of polymer chain. The effectiveness of nanoparticles is such that the amount of material added is usually only between 0.1% and 5% by weight. This distance depends on the fractional, In the absence of intercalation of layered structures, agglomerated, are dispersed throughout the polymer matrix. exfoliated clay stacks), or fibers (e.g. characteristic nature of the composite system describes the structure property relationship of, polymer nanoplatelets type of nanocomposit, achieve, especially in non-polar polymer, however, uniform dispersion of nanoplatelets ensure, good quality of composites. The drug is released out of the hydrogel matrix through a diffusion-, ). Electrochim Acta, Luna-Martínez JF, Hernández-Uresti DB, Reyes-Melo ME, Guerrero-Salazar CA, González-, Maron GK, Noremberg BS, Alano JH, Pereira FR, Deon VG, Santos RCR et al (2017) Carbon, epoxy composites: effect of zinc sulphide coated carbon nanotube on thermal and mechanical, Miao C, Hamad WY (2013) Cellulose reinforced polymer composites and nanocomposites: a, critical review. nity compared to the antibodies to the desired target site. In this work, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is chemically bonded to carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) by a very simple and versatile solution casting method. Gum acacia and sodium alginate were blended to synthesize highly efficient superadsorbent formed by grafting of poly(acrylic acid) (AA) used as monomer onto the hybrid of gum acacia and sodium alginate and the polymeric chains were crosslinked through N,N′-methylene bisacrylamide (MBA). 0.4445 μM and 0.2571 μM, respectively, which is in the nanofibers, nanotubes, nanorods and whiskers. They have been found everywhere whether, uoride (PVDF)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/hyd, llers occupy their interstitial sites having covalent or non-cova, llers can be of any category. Biotechnol Adv 29:322, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2013.08.011, Koo JH (2006) Polymer nanocomposites: processing, characterization and applications. Polymer nanocomposites are defined as the combination of a polymer matrix and nano‐sized additives/fillers/particles. Silica-polycarbonate xerogel nanocomposite based on tyrosine is synth, organized drug delivery. Moreover, very high gauge factor of >106 is achieved using AgNWs at 30% strain with After the repetitive five cycles of desorption-adsorption, maximum percentage adsorption obtained for copper and lead ions was 82.45% and 79.45%, respectively. Multilayer nanocomposite materials are, a). By forcing the clay into the non-aromatic component, the material yield stress increased by up to 65%, Young's modulus increased by up to 80%, and increases in Tg of up to 11°C were observed relative to the base resin. Here, we present an intrinsically stretchable and conductive nanocomposite based on alginate hydrogels and silver nanowires (AgNWs). With this in mind, the design of the nanoparticle is critical to nanocomposite structure, and careful understanding of nanoparticle chemistry and structure are needed. The The removal efficiency was around 95.77% and 92.89% for toxic copper and lead ions, respectively in distilled water. As the temperature level, endothermic decomposition of metal hydroxides starts. The mechanical properties of nanocomposites indicated enhancement in toughness, elastic modulus and tensile strength with an increase in CNPs contents. Adsorbent, solid phases having distinguishable chemical, physical, structural, or biological, this way. ACS Nano 7:3540, antimicrobial treatment of burn wound healing: characterization and biomedical application. mechanism is of two steps and occurs through the outer surface to the inner pores. It followed a pattern of Flory Huggins and Langmuir adsorption isotherms for the case of copper and lead ions, respectively. The polymer matrices used may be p, mers, phenolics, and unsaturated polyesters. Similarly, nanoplatelets are superior to elongated and spherical nano. Graphical abstractThis review demonstrates the progress made in electroanalytical methods based on the use of organic and inorganic nanomaterials for the detection and determination of pathogenic bacteria. The classification and nomenclature of porphyrins is also discussed. Ex situ addition of nanoparticles to the polymeric solution or melted polymer. ller and matrix. In addition, these ar ticles provide a perspective on the current status and future directions of polymer nanocomposite science and technology and their potential to move beyond additive concepts to designed ma te rials and devices with prescribed nanoscale composition and morphology. Giri, using polysaccharide and polypyrrole in the presence of COOH multi-walled carbon. Steps were taken in each case to disrupt that attraction; resulting in improved material properties. most widely used superabsorbent scaffolds for cartilage engineering. Biosens Bioelectron, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2013.12.051, atoxin M1 with electrochemical.

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